Wie bei den meisten anderen Sportarten hat sich auch für das Eishockey im. Als Pest, oft auch Agitator (dt. Anstifter), bezeichnet man im Eishockey einen Spielertyp, der bekannt dafür ist, ständig Versuche zu starten, gegnerische Spieler. Das Eishockey-Ligasystem in Deutschland ist ein Ligasystem zur Einteilung der deutschen Eishockey-Ligen. Die höchste vom Deutschen Eishockey-Bund. Die Bundesrepublik wurde mit dem Deutschen Eissport-Verband am Darunter gibt es icke football Landesliga Hessen. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Msv duisburg der westen schon die erste Spielzeit wurde von den Mad Dogs München nicht durchgehalten. Von bis war sie auch für die Oberliga zuständig.
Any penalty during overtime that would result in a team losing a skater during regulation instead causes the non-penalized team to add a skater.
This goes until the next stoppage of play. International play and several North American professional leagues, including the NHL in the regular season , now use an overtime period identical to that from 99—00 — 03—04 followed by a penalty shootout.
If the score remains tied after an extra overtime period, the subsequent shootout consists of three players from each team taking penalty shots.
After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. If the score is still tied, the shootout then proceeds to a sudden death format.
Regardless of the number of goals scored during the shootout by either team, the final score recorded will award the winning team one more goal than the score at the end of regulation time.
In the NHL if a game is decided in overtime or by a shootout the winning team is awarded two points in the standings and the losing team is awarded one point.
Ties no longer occur in the NHL. The overtime mode for the NHL playoffs differ from the regular season. In the playoffs there are no shootouts nor ties.
If a game is tied after regulation an additional 20 minutes of 5 on 5 sudden death overtime will be added. In case of a tied game after the overtime, multiple minute overtimes will be played until a team scores, which wins the match.
In ice hockey, infractions of the rules lead to play stoppages whereby the play is restarted at a face off. Some infractions result in the imposition of a penalty to a player or team.
In the simplest case, the offending player is sent to the " penalty box " and their team has to play with one less player on the ice for a designated amount of time.
Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration.
A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player. This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking.
Players may be also assessed personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve.
The team that has been given a penalty is said to be playing "short-handed" while the opposing team is on a " power play ". As of the — season, a minor penalty is also assessed for " diving ", where a player embellishes or simulates an offence.
More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those that injure the victimized player.
These penalties end either when the time runs out or when the other team scores during the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score, effectively expiring the first minor penalty.
Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a "minor" penalty results in visible injury such as bleeding , as well as for fighting.
Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team. Major penalties assessed for fighting are typically offsetting, meaning neither team is short-handed and the players exit the penalty box upon a stoppage of play following the expiration of their respective penalties.
The foul of "boarding" defined as "check[ing] an opponent in such a manner that causes the opponent to be thrown violently in the boards"  is penalized either by a minor or major penalty at the discretion of the referee, based on the violent state of the hit.
A minor or major penalty for boarding is often assessed when a player checks an opponent from behind and into the boards.
Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short. Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the NHL usually result from fighting.
In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, both the players serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player both teams still have a full complement of players on the ice.
This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions.
In this case, both teams will have only four skating players not counting the goaltender until one or both penalties expire if one penalty expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder of the time ; this applies regardless of current pending penalties.
However, in the NHL, a team always has at least three skaters on the ice. Thus, ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the ice unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct a two-and-ten or five-and-ten.
In this case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins.
The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface he does not sit in the penalty box ; meanwhile, if an additional minor or major penalty is assessed, a designated player must serve out of that segment of the penalty in the box similar to the above-mentioned "two-and-ten".
In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight.
In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties.
A " penalty shot " is awarded to a player when the illegal actions of another player stop a clear scoring opportunity, most commonly when the player is on a " breakaway ".
A penalty shot allows the obstructed player to pick up the puck on the centre red-line and attempt to score on the goalie with no other players on the ice, to compensate for the earlier missed scoring opportunity.
A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.
In the NHL, a unique penalty applies to the goalies. The goalies now are forbidden to play the puck in the "corners" of the rink near their own net.
Only in the area in-front of the goal line and immediately behind the net marked by two red lines on either side of the net the goalie can play the puck.
An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the " two-line offside pass ".
Players are now able to pass to teammates who are more than the blue and centre ice red line away. The NHL has taken steps to speed up the game of hockey and create a game of finesse, by retreating from the past when illegal hits, fights, and "clutching and grabbing" among players were commonplace.
Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.
This use of the hip and shoulder is called " body checking ". Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.
A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck.
In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.
Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal.
In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on.
However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.
In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.
There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs,  and one or two referees ,  who call goals and all other penalties.
Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations.
On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers. The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system," that uses one referee and two linesmen.
Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system. This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes.
With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system," where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.
Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.
In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.
Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations.
This includes a helmet cage worn if certain age or clear plastic visor can be worn , shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.
Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.
Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability. This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction.
Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.
The hockey stick consists of a long, relatively wide, and slightly curved flat blade, attached to a shaft. The curve itself has a big impact on its performance.
A deep curve allows for lifting the puck easier while a shallow curve allows for easier backhand shots. The flex of the stick also impacts the performance.
Typically, a less flexible stick is meant for a stronger player since the player is looking for the right balanced flex that allows the stick to flex easily while still having a strong "whip-back" which sends the puck flying at high speeds.
It is quite distinct from sticks in other sports games and most suited to hitting and controlling the flat puck. Its unique shape contributed to the early development of the game.
Ice hockey is a full contact sport and carries a high risk of injury. Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulder contact, hip contact, and hockey pucks can all potentially cause injuries.
The types of injuries associated with hockey include: Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.
According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey].
One of the leading causes of head injury is body checking from behind. Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".
Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".
The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.
Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious. This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention.
Studies show that ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare. An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.
Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck. The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.
Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game.
Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.
A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions. Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice.
Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.
A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.
However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net. One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck.
Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone. Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i.
Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.
There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.
A deke , short for "decoy," is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling," which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.
Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.
At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.
The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.
In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.
Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The game developed at first without an organizing body.
A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament. Starting in the s, the game spread to universities.
Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.
The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams, but has had several membership changes.
The league began paying its players a salary in the —18 season. The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world.
The league expanded to the United States beginning in In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.
A few years later, in , a new 12 team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.
This created a 21 team league. It comprises 31 teams from the United States and Canada. The number of Mourning Doves is estimated to be approximately million.
They are found in North America. Mourning Doves are light grey and brown, and males and females look similar. The species mostly have one partner at a time.
Both parents incubate and care for their chicks. Adult Mourning Doves usually eat only seeds. The young are fed crop milk by the parents.
The Mourning Dove is hunted both for sport and meat. Up to 70 million birds are shot in the United States every year. Its mournful woo-oo-oo-oo call gives the bird its name.
See the pages of the Wikimedia Foundation Governance wiki , too. List of all Wikipedias — Languages working together — Start a Wikipedia for a new language.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Welcome to Wikipedia the free encyclopedia that anyone can change. This is the front page of the Simple English Wikipedia.
Wikipedias are places where people work together to write encyclopedias in different languages. We use Simple English words and grammar here. The Simple English Wikipedia is for everyone!
That includes children and adults who are learning English. Fans and corporate sponsors focused on the 1st Bundesliga teams, forcing the elite teams to invest heavily in players to avoid relegation.
This increased budgets 25 percent over the previous two years. In the final Bundesliga season, —94, only 11 teams wanted to play in the 2nd Bundesliga.
Furthermore, two teams folded during and after the season. This made it difficult to attract serious sponsorship. In January , 20 out of the remaining 21 1st and 2nd Bundesliga teams voted for creating a new entity, the DEL.
Upon founding, the "DEL Betriebsgesellschaft mbH" was the first German professional sports league managed by an organization whose members were incorporated as well.
The goal behind the DEL was to create a league, based on the model of the North American NHL , in which teams could play consistently without relegation concerns and create a stable league.
Clubs in the DEL were required to conform to rules , which were designed to ensure long-term viability. Twelve clubs from the old 1st Bundesliga , and six from the 2nd Bundesliga came together as founding members.
The new league immediately attracted corporate sponsorship with the Krombacher Brewery , which was prominently featured on the new league logo.
The hope of avoiding the troubles of the old Bundesliga by stricter financial controls did not materialize. Hofherr was Mad Dogs former president and it was alleged that he must have known about their desperate financial situation.
The Bosman ruling , a decision of the European Court of Justice regarding the movement of labor in soccer, had profound influence on the league.
The old Bundesliga had national character with German clubs competing for the German title using mostly German players.
After the ruling European Union players were excluded from the "foreign" player quota. This lowered costs significantly, enabling smaller teams to compete more effectively.
However, frequent player moves were not viewed positively by the fans, resulting in smaller attendance numbers. The —05 season was significant due to the NHL lockout.
The DEL is an independently run league, fully owned and operated by its 14 member teams. The DEL can only admit one 2nd Bundesliga team per season to the league, unless the league strength falls below fourteen, in which case two clubs can be admitted.
Since the —07 season, no DEL team can be automatically relegated, a team can only lose its league status through non-compliance with the leagues regulations see above.
This cooperation contract was signed in December , and was valid until This contract ended years of dispute between the three organizations over competencies and financial issues.Wurde in der Sowjetunion bis in die er Jahre auf dem Eis vor allem Bandy frankfurt meier, entwickelte sich das sowjetische Eishockey fortan mit einem enormen Tempo. CS1 German-language sources de Use dmy dates from May Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with German-language external links Articles with Casino barriere bordeaux plan de la salle external links. Namespaces Main page Talk. Additionally, a taifun blazer casino 1 format for the game schedule will limit the number of regular season games to 52 for each team. You may change these pages and make new pages. Wikiversity Free learning resources. Kein Auf- und Abstieg" in German. It comprises 31 teams from the United States and Canada. Retrieved 12 July Archived from hotlail original on January 25, Paralympic sports and Summer Video poker casino free sports. In 2+2 poker Zeit des Kalten Krieges entwickelte sich eine starke russische Eishockeydominanz mit internationalen Erfolgen in Serie, was auch der unklaren Profi-Situation der russischen Spieler im Gegensatz zu den nordamerikanischen Amateuren bei internationalen Turnieren geschuldet war. Typically, the NHL drafts many players directly from the major book of ra 2 euro leagues. One of the first was the Swiss National League Afounded in