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If the dealer has a 10 or an Ace face up players are offered the option to place an Insurance bet. If a player chooses to take insurance they place an additional bet equal to half of their original bet.
This insurance bet wins if the dealer has Blackjack. The dealer now checks their down card to see if they have Blackjack. If they have Blackjack they expose their down card.
The round is concluded and all players lose their original bet unless they also have Blackjack. Any insurance bets are paid out at 2: If the dealer does not have Blackjack any insurance bets are lost and any players who have Blackjack are paid.
It is then the turn of the remaining players to take their actions. The player can take this action after any of the other player actions as long as their hand total is not more than The hand signal to Stand is waving a flat hand over the cards.
Hit — If the player wishes to take another card they signal to the dealer to by scratching the felt beside their hand or pointing to their hand.
A single card is then played face up onto their hand. If the hand total is less than 21 the player can choose to Hit again or Stand.
If the total is 21 the hand automatically stands. To do this they place a second wager equal to their first beside their first wager.
A player who doubles down receives exactly one more card face up and is then forced to stand regardless of the total. Some casinos will restrict which starting hand totals can be doubled.
Where the player chooses to do this the cards are separated and an additional card is dealt to complete each hand. If either hand receives a second card of matching rank the player may be offered the option to split again, though this depends on the rules in the casino.
Generally the player is allowed a maximum of 4 hands after which no further splits are allowed. The player has all the usual options: A player who splits Aces is usually only allowed to receive a single additional card on each hand.
Normally players are allowed to split two non-matching value cards, for example a King and a Jack. If Aces are split and the player draws a Ten or if Tens are split and the player draws an Ace, the resulting hand does not count as a Blackjack but only as an ordinary Surrender — Most casinos allow a player to surrender, taking back half their bet and giving up their hand.
In the most usual version, known as Late Surrender, it is after the dealer has checked the hole card and does not have a Blackjack.
After all players have completed their actions the dealer plays their hand according to fixed rules.
First they will reveal their down card. The dealer will then continue to take cards until they have a total of 17 or higher.
This rule will be clearly printed on the felt of the table. If the dealer busts all non-busted player hands are automatically winners.
If a player wins a hand they are paid out at 1: If the player has Blackjack they are paid at 3: This effectively results in a push overall for the hand.
All additional cards dealy to the player are given face up. The initial cards are revealed by the player if the hand goes bust, or if the player wishes to split a pair.
Otherwise the dealer reveals the cards at the end of the round when it is time to settle the bets. This style of game is rare nowadays: Player Blackjacks are paid at the end of the round if the dealer does not have Blackjack.
If the dealer has Blackjack the rules regarding Doubled and Split hands vary from casino to casino. Some casinos will take both bets while others will only take the initial bet and return the other.
It should be noted that some casinos have started to offer a reduced payout on Blackjack, most commonly 6: This is very bad for the player, increasing the House Edge significantly.
Any game offering a reduced payout on Blackjack should be avoided by players. The maximum number of hands that can be created by splitting depends on the rules in the casino: When splitting 10 value cards, not all casinos will allow players to split non-matching 10 cards.
For instance, in some casinos you could split two Jacks but could not split a King and a Jack. Also, some casinos will limit which card ranks can be split.
House rules will dictate whether the player is allowed to Double after splitting, and whether a player who splits Aces is allowed to receive more than one additional card on a hand.
A few casinos may offer Early Surrender in which the player can take back half of their bet and give up their hand before the dealer checks for Blackjack.
This is very rare nowadays. In European style games There is normally no Surrender option. If Surrender were offered it would of course have to be Early Surrender.
The side rule is rarely offered. Blackjack can be played at home, rather than in a casino. In this case a fancy Blackjack table is not needed: Unless the players have agreed in advance that the host should deal throughout, to ensure a fair game the participants should take turns to be the dealer.
The turn to deal can pass to the next player in clockwise order after every hand or every five hands or whatever the players agree.
If playing with a single deck of cards, it is desirable to re-shuffle the cards after every hand. Nightclubs and pubs in Sweden often offer a Blackjack variant that is less favourable to the players.
All the essential rules are the same as in the casino version unless the player and dealer have an equal total of 17, 18 or First and foremost, as a general rule the player should never take Insurance.
Unless using an advanced and mathematically proven strategy that will alert the player to the rare situations in which Insurance is worthwhile, it should be avoided as a bad bet for the player.
Next, it should be understood that every possible combination of player hands and dealer up card has a mathematically correct play.
These can be summarized in what is known as a Basic Strategy table. However, certain plays in the table need to be modified according to the specific combination of rules in force.
To be sure of playing correctly, it is necessary to generate a Basic Strategy table for the specific rules of the game being played. Various tools are available online to do this.
We would recommend this Blackjack Basic Strategy Calculator. It should be noted that even playing perfect Basic Strategy for the rule set in play, the player will still usually be at a disadvantage.
Card Counting provides the player a mathematically provable opportunity to gain an advantage over the house. It must be understood that this does not guarantee that the player will win.
Just as a regular player may win though good luck despite playing at a disadvantage, it is perfectly possible for the Card Counter to lose through an extended period of bad luck even though playing with a small advantage over the House.
The basic premise of Card Counting is that mathematically speaking, low cards on average are beneficial to the dealer while high cards favour the player.
There are many subtle reasons for this but the most significant are:. So the Card Counter looks for times when there are more high cards left to be played than a regular deck would have.
Rather than trying to remember each card that has been played, the Card Counter will usually use a ratio system that offsets cards that are good for the player against cards that are good for the dealer.
The most commonly used Card Counting system is the HiLo count , which values cards as follows:. To keep track the player starts at zero, adds one to the total every time a low card is played and subtracts one from the total when a high card is played.
It may seem counter-intuitive to subtract one for high value cards that are good for the player, but a high card that has been played is one less high card that is left to be played.
Where the Running Count is positive the player knows that there are more player favourable cards remaining to be played. When kept correctly the Running Count will start at 0 and, if all the cards were to be played out, would end at 0.
This is because there are an equal number of high cards and low cards. Card Counting systems are generally not impeded by the addition of multiple decks to the game.
After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
Insurance is a side bet that the dealer has blackjack and is treated independently of the main wager. It is attractive although not necessarily wise for the player to insure against the possibility of a dealer blackjack by making a maximum "insurance" bet, in which case the "insurance proceeds" will make up for the concomitant loss on the original bet.
The player may add up to half the value of their original bet to the insurance and these extra chips are placed on a portion of the table usually marked "Insurance pays 2 to 1".
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have blackjack less than one-third of the time.
Furthermore, the insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a chance of one in three of being a ten.
Advantage play techniques can sometimes identify such situations. In a multi-hand, face-up, single deck game, it is possible to establish whether insurance is a good bet simply by observing the other cards on the table after the deal; even if there are just 2 player hands exposed, and neither of their two initial cards is a ten, then 16 in 47 of the remaining cards are tens, which is larger than 1 in 3, so insurance is a profitable bet.
This is an elementary example of the family of advantage play techniques known as card counting. The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
The rules of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table, failing which there is an expectation that casino staff will provide them on request.
Over variations of blackjack have been documented. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.
The loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through ignorance is generally expected to be greater. This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender.
The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game. Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender.
Most medium-strength hands should be surrendered against a dealer Ace if the hole card has not been checked. For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.
In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. An example of basic strategy is shown in the table below, and includes the following parameters: The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations.
For example, if the above game used the hit on soft 17 rule, common in Las Vegas Strip casinos, only 6 cells of the table would need to be changed: A, surrender 15 or 17 vs.
A, double on A,7 vs. Also when playing basic strategy never take insurance or "even money. Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.
Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0. Casino promotions such as complimentary matchplay vouchers or 2: Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total.
For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4. However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2.
However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.
Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,, which falls to 3 in , for a six-deck game.
Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the s. Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.
These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or blacklisting if they are detected.
The main techniques of advantage play in blackjack are as follows:. During the course of a blackjack shoe, the dealer exposes the dealt cards. Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.
These inferences can be used in the following ways:. A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e. A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned.
The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems. Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game.
Card counting is most rewarding near the end of a complete shoe when as few as possible cards remain. Single-deck games are therefore particularly susceptible to card counting.
As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.
In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.
Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played. Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, : Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property.
The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games. Techniques other than card counting can swing the advantage of casino blackjack toward the player.
All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by Edward O. Patterson also developed and published a shuffle-tracking method for tracking favorable clumps of cards and cutting them into play and tracking unfavorable clumps of cards and cutting them out of play.
The player can also gain an advantage by identifying cards from distinctive wear markings on their backs, or by hole carding observing during the dealing process the front of a card dealt face down.
These methods are generally legal although their status in particular jurisdictions may vary. Many blackjack tables offer a side bet on various outcomes including: The side wager is typically placed in a designated area next to the box for the main wager.
A player wishing to wager on a side bet is usually required to place a wager on blackjack. Some games require that the blackjack wager should equal or exceed any side bet wager.
A non-controlling player of a blackjack hand is usually permitted to place a side bet regardless of whether the controlling player does so.
The house edge for side bets is generally far higher than for the blackjack game itself. Nonetheless side bets can be susceptible to card counting.
A side count, designed specifically for a particular side bet, can improve the player edge. Only a few side bets, like "Lucky Ladies", offer a sufficient win rate to justify the effort of advantage play.
In team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count. Blackjack can be played in tournament form.
Players start with an equal numbers of chips; the goal is to finish among the top chip-holders. Depending on the number of competitors, tournaments may be held over several rounds, with one or two players qualifying from each table after a set number of deals to meet the qualifiers from the other tables in the next round.
Another tournament format, Elimination Blackjack , drops the lowest-stacked player from the table at pre-determined points in the tournament.
Good strategy for blackjack tournaments can differ from non-tournament strategy because of the added dimension of choosing the amount to be wagered.
As in poker tournaments, players pay the casino an initial entry fee to participate in a tournament, and re-buys are sometimes permitted.
Some casinos, as well as general betting outlets, provide blackjack among a selection of casino-style games at electronic consoles.
Video blackjack game rules are generally more favorable to the house; e. Video and online blackjack games generally deal each round from a fresh shoe, rendering card counting ineffective in most situations.
Blackjack is a member of a large family of traditional card games played recreationally all around the world. Most of these games have not been adapted for casino play.
Furthermore, the casino game development industry is very active in producing blackjack variants, most of which are ultimately not adopted for widespread use in casinos.
The following are the prominent twenty-one themed comparing card games which have been adapted or invented for use in casinos and have become established in the gambling industry.
Twenty-one or "Siebzehn und Vier" German: